Our Obligations Regarding The Rulers

Question: What is wajib upon us regarding the people who are in authority over us or the Hukaam (Rulers)?

Answer: Wishing them well, its explanation is that they are supported regarding the truth, they are followed and obeyed. That they be advised with softness, they are prayed behind, jihaad should be performed with them, they should be given the zakah and charity, having patience on some of their minor impressions and injustice, weapons are not raised against them up until the open kufr is apparent from them. They are not pushed into deceit by fabricated lies and supplications be performed for them for the sake of guidance and rectification.

Question: What are the proofs?

Answer: Allaah says,

“O you who believe obey Allaah and obey the Messenger (Muhammad sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) and those of you who are in authority.” [Soorah an-Nisaa (4):59]

The Messenger of Allaah (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) said,

“Hear and obey even if he is a slave” [Saheeh. Bukhaaree (no’s 693, 696, 7142), Ibn Maajah (no.2760), Bayhaqee in as-Sunan al-Kubraa (8/155) and Musnad Ahmad in his Musnad (6/403)]

The Messenger of Allaah (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) also said,

“Whoever sees something disliked from the ameer, he should have patience with it because whoever separates from the jamaa’ah by a hand span and if he died he would die the death of Jaahiliyyah.” [Agreed Upon. On the authority of Ibn Abbaas (radi-Allaahu ‘anhu). Bukhaaree (no’s 7053, 7054, 7143), Muslim (no’s 55, 56) and Ahmad in his Musnad (1/275, 297, 310)]

It is the saying of Ubaadah Ibn as-Saamit (radi-Allaahu ‘anhu) who said,

The Messenger of Allaah (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) called us and we gave him the pledge of allegiance, from the pledge of allegiance was obeying him in both situations of happiness and sorrow, hardship and ease and in precedence over us and we do not take the kingdom of the ruler except when we see open disbelief for which he has no proof from Allaah.” [Saheeh. Bukhaaree (no 7052), Muslim (no’s 41, 42), an-Nasaa’ee (no’s 4153, 4154), Ibn Maajah (no.2766) and Ahmad (3/144, 5/316).

It is another saying of the Messenger of Allaah (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam),

“It is obligatory upon every Muslim to obey that which he likes and dislikes except when he is commanded to sin, then it is obligatory upon the believer not to hear or obey.” [Agreed Upon. On the authority of Ibn Umar (radi-Allaahu ‘anhu). Bukhaaree (no.2955, 7144), Muslim (no.38), Tirmidhee (no.1707), Ibn Maajah (no.2864), Abu Dawood (no.2626) and an-Nasaa’ee (no.4206)]

In another place he (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) said,

“There is obedience only in the good.” [Agreed Upon. On the authority of Alee (radi-Allaahu ‘anhu). Bukhaaree (no’s 4340, 7175, 7257), Muslim (no’s 39, 40), Abu Daawood (no.2625), an-Nasaa’ee (no.4205) and Ahmad (1/82, 94, 124)]

In another place he (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) said,

“Even if he strikes your back and takes your wealth, then still hear and obey.” [Saheeh. On the authority of Hudhaifah (radi-Allaahu ‘anhu) which is a part of a lengthier hadeeth. Muslim (no.52). Another hadeeth with similar meaning has been reported by Ubaadah as-Saamit (radi-Allaahu ‘anhu) by Ibn Hibbaan (no.4547).]

In another place he (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) said,

“Whoever withdrew his hand from obedience, then will meet Allaah on the day of judgement in the condition that he will have no proof nor an excuse and whoever dies without the allegiance to the ameer round his neck, then he dies the death of Jaahiliyyah.” [Saheeh. On the authority of Ibn Umar (radi-Allaahu ‘anhu). Muslim (no. 58), Haakim (1/77, 117) who authenticated it according to the conditions of the two Shaykhs and Dhahabee agreed. Imaam al-Albaanee (raheemahullaah) also authenticated it in as-Saheehah (no.984) and in Saheeh al-Jaam’i (no.6105)]

In another place he (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) said,

“Whosoever wishes to divide the affair of this ummah into pieces when the ummah is united, then kill him with a sword even if he is a person.” [Saheeh. On the authority of Arfajah. Muslim (no.59, 60), Abu Daawood in As-Sunnah, the chapter of killing the Khawaarij (no.4762), an-Nasaa’ee (4020, 4023) and Ahmad (4/261, 341, 5/24).]

In another place he (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) said,

“There will be such leaders of the jamaa’ah you will recognise and you will abandon their bad actions, and whoever dislikes their actions will be worse… and whoever rejects them will be protected. But whoever remains pleased with them and follows them, the people asked, “Shall we fight such people?” He said, “No! Up until they establish the prayer.” [Saheeh. On the authority of Umm Salamah (radi-Allaahu ‘anhaa). Muslim (no.62, 63, 64), Abu Daawood in As-Sunnah, the chapter of killing the Khawaarij (no.4760), Tirmidhee (no.2265), and Ahmad (6/295, 302, 305, 321)]

All these ahadeeth are mentioned in the six most authentic books of hadeeth.

[Al-Allaamah, Fadheelatush-Shaykh Haafidh Ibn Ahmad al-Hakamee – A’laam as-Sunnah al-Manthoorah al-Ei’tiqaad at-Tae’fatun-Naajiyyatal Mansoorah]

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