Holding the Mus-haf during salaah

Question: I carry a copy of the Qur’an while offering Salah (Prayer) behind the Imam (the one who leads congregational Prayer). It should be noted that I concentrate much and my mind does not go astray, and the moves I make in Salah are only for opening and closing the Qur’an. Is this permissible? I hope you will explain the issue!

Answer: The Ma’mum (a person being led by an Imam in Prayer) has to listen attentively to the recitation of the Imam and contemplate the Words of Allah they are hearing. They should not be distracted by anything as Allah (Exalted be He) says:

listen to it, and be silent that you may receive mercy. [Surah Al-A`raf, 7:204]

Imam Ahmad (may Allah be merciful to him) said that religious scholars agreed by consensus that this Ayah is about listening to the recitation of the Qur’an in Salah. holding a copy of the Qur’an while offering Salah behind the Imam for the sake of following the Imam causes the person to make repeated moves which distracts the people offering Salah around them. This may affect the perfection of submission and humbleness to Allah in Salah, so it is prescribed to abandon it.

May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions!

[Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’, 5/383]

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Ruling on allowing children to enter masjids

Question: Is it permissible for children to enter Masjids (Mosques)? How do we respond to those who consider it not permissible?

Answer: It is recommended to bring children to the Masjid so they will become accustomed to offering Salah (prayer) in congregation, if the child has reached the age of discernment. It is authentically reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“Command your children to pray when they are seven years old and beat them for (neglecting) it when they are ten years old, and do not let (boys and girls) sleep together.”

As for the account that the Prophet (peace be upon them) said:

“Keep your children and the insane away from your Masjids”,

it is unauthentic.

However, if a child has not reached the age of discernment, it is best not to bring him to the Masjid, as he is unaware of the meaning of Salah or congregation. Also, the child may disturb those offering Salah.

May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions!

[Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’, 5/263]

Keeping masjids safe from the playing and disturbance of children

Question: Someone in our village brings his minor children who have not reached the age of seven to the Masjid (mosque). Sometimes, they raise their voices and distract those who offer Salah and cause them to lose concentration. When some of our Muslim brothers advised him not to bring them, he said: The Companions used to bring their children to the Masjid during the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and when the Messenger heard the cry of a baby, he used to not lengthen Salah. What is the ruling in this regard? Could you kindly explain?

Answer: It is obligatory to maintain Masjids and keep them safe from the playing of children and their annoyance because Masjids are built for worship. Those who bring their children with them to teach them Salah (prayer) should discipline them and train them not to play in the Masjids or play with the Mushafs (copies of the Qur’an) there.

May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family and Companions

[Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’, 5/264]

When will a Muslim be excused?

Question: Will a Muslim be excused when doing acts of Shirk such as offering a sacrifice for or making a vow for anything other than Allah out of ignorance?

Answer: There are two categories of acts: First: Acts are excused when done ignorantly. Second: Acts not excused when done ignorantly.

If the doer lives among the Muslims and commits acts of Shirk, worshipping anything other than Allah, he will not be excused, for he is negligent in knowing and understanding his religion. His excuses for worshipping anything such as the dead, trees, stones, and idols other than Allah are not acceptable because of his negligence. Allah (may He be Praised) says:

But those who disbelieve turn away from that whereof they are warned. [Surah Al-Ahqaf, 46:3]

When the Prophet (peace be upon him) sought Allah’s permission to ask His forgiveness for his mother who died in Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic time of ignorance), he was not permitted to do so as she died believing in her tribe’s faith (worship of idols). The Prophet (peace be upon him) said to someone asking about his father’s fate:

He is in the Hellfire. When he saw his face gloomy, he said: My father and yours are in Hellfire.

This is because he died as a Mushrik (one who associates others with Allah in His Divinity or worship). If this is the case of such Mushriks who lived during the times of ignorance, what about those who live among the Muslims and worship Al-Badawy , Al-Husayn , Shaykh `Abdul-Qadir Al-Jilany, , the Prophet (peace be upon him), or `Aly or any other person!

Such a person and his like are not to be excused because they commit major Shirk (associating others in worship with Allah) while they are living among the Muslims and read the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Messenger (peace be upon him). They turn away from these sources which point out the impermissibility of their acts.

As for the second category that are excused for ignorance, they are like those who live in a land far away from the Muslim world and Ahl-ul-Fatrah (those to whom Da`wah has not reached in an uncorrupted manner). Such people are excused and their case is left to Allah. The correct view is that they will be tested on the Day of Resurrection: if they respond and obey, they will be admitted to Paradise. However, if they disobey, they will enter Hell as Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says:

And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger (to give warning). [Surah Al-Isra’, 17:15]

Other authentic Hadiths mentioned in this regard also.

The encyclopedic scholar Ibn Al-Qayyim (may Allah be merciful with him) explained this issue in the closing part of his book entitled [Tariq Al-Hijratayn] tackling the ranks of Mukallafs (persons meeting the conditions to be held legally accountable for their actions). You may refer to this useful book.

[Fataawaa Ibn Baaz, 4/26-27]

The Stand of the Believer toward the Trials

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. May the good end be for the pious! May Allah’s peace be upon Muhammad, His Messenger and His Slave, and upon his wives and offspring, just like He sent His peace upon Prophet Ibrahim and his family! May Allah bless Prophet Muhammad, his wives and offspring just like He blessed Prophet Ibrahim and his family! He (Glorified be He) is indeed Praiseworthy and Glorious.

I would like to thank Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) for this meeting with our dear brothers and sons. I implore to Allah (Exalted be He) to make it a blessed meeting; make us benefit from what we learnt; purify our hearts and fix our deeds; protect us all from the evils within ourselves and our misdeeds; grant victory to His Religion; make His Word superior; set right the affairs of the Muslims everywhere; let the best among them rule; and protect them from the evil ones among them. He is the Generous, the Gracious.

I would like also to thank those in charge of Imam Muhammad ibn Sa`ud University for organizing this meeting. May Allah (Exalted be He) double their reward and guide us all to every good in religion and life and to the benefit of the whole Ummah (nation). He (Glorified and Exalted be He) is the Generous, the Gracious.

Dear brothers and sons, my speech today is entitled “The Stand of the Believer toward The trials”. The Prophet (peace be upon him) clarified the danger of Fitan i.e. trials – may Allah (Exalted be He) save us their evils – and told us what we should do about it.

What is Fitnah (sing. of fitan i.e. trials)?

Fitnah is a general word that has many meanings. It means Shirk (associating others in worship with Allah), which is the utmost expression of Fitnah, according to Allah’s saying:

And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and polytheism, i.e. worshipping others besides Allâh) and the religion (worship) will all be for Allâh Alone [in the whole of the world]. [Surah Al-Anfal, 8:39]

Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) also says:

They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Months (i.e. 1st, 7th, 11th and 12th months of the Islâmic calendar). Say, “Fighting therein is a great (transgression) but a greater (transgression) [Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:217]

Fitnah also refers to torture and burning according to Allah’s saying:

“Taste you your trial (punishment i.e. burning)! This is what you used to ask to be hastened!” [Surah Al-Dhariyat, 51:14]

He (Glorified and Exalted be He) also says:

Verily, those who put into trial the believing men and believing women (by torturing them and burning them), and then do not turn in repentance (to Allâh), then they will have the torment of Hell, and they will have the punishment of the burning Fire. [Surah Al-Buruj, 85:10]

Trial here refers to torturing and punishing. Fitnah also refers to testing. Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says:

and We shall make a trial of you with evil and with good. [Surah Al-Anbiya’, 21:35]

He (Glorified and Exalted be He) also says:

Your wealth and your children are only a trial [Surah Al-Taghabun, 64:15]

to determine those who use wealth and children in obeying Allah, fulfilling Allah’s rights, avoiding Allah’s prohibitions and respecting the limits of Allah (Exalted be He), and those who deviate from this path and follow their own desires. Fitnah also refers to afflictions and punishment according to Allah’s saying:

And fear the Fitnah (affliction and trial) which affects not in particular (only) those of you who do wrong (but it may afflict all the good and the bad people) [Surah Al-Anfal, 8:25]

This means that it will affect all the people in general.

It is reported from Al-Zubayr ibn Al-`Awwam (may Allah be pleased with him) and a group of the Salaf (righteous predecessors) that they said about the Fitnah of `Uthman’s murder, “We would not have thought it i.e. fitnah, could strike us until it took place.” A group of ignorant, unjust people, some of whom were misguided, killed `Uthman (may Allah be pleased with him) due to false doubts and wrong interpretations. This Fitnah spread, grew larger and afflicted some people who had nothing to do with it and who were not among the unjust people. This led to what took place between `Aly (may Allah be pleased with him) and Mu`awiyah (may Allah be pleased with him), and the Battles of the Camel and Siffin, which were consequences of the injustice done to `Uthman (may Allah be pleased with him). A group of people led by Mu`awiyah claimed revenge for `Uthman (may Allah be pleased with him), and asked `Aly (may Allah be pleased with him), after being chosen as the fourth Caliph by the Muslims, to surrender the murderers to them. `Aly (may Allah be pleased with him) told them that the time is not suitable to surrender the murderers now, and he promised them to do the right thing later, but he could not take revenge at that time. War took place in the Battle of the Camel and the Battle of Siffin as is known, and a group of the Salaf (may Allah be pleased with them) including Al-Zubayr said that the Ayah (Qur’anic verse) was revealed to treat situations like that, as it entails this meaning, and that this was the first Fitnah to take place in the Ummah.

And fear the Fitnah (affliction and trial) which affects not in particular (only) those of you who do wrong (but it may afflict all the good and the bad people), and know that Allâh is Severe in punishment. [Surah Al-Anfal, 8:25]

The Fitnah affected a large number of people, including the Sahabah (Companions of the Prophet) and others. `Ammar ibn Yasir, Talhah ibn `Ubaydullah, who is among the ten Sahabah given the glad tidings of entering Jannah (Paradise), and Al-Zubayr who is also among the ten Sahabah given the glad tidings of entering Jannah (Paradise). They were killed during this Fitnah, in addition to other Sahabah who were killed in the Battles of the Camel and Siffin.

Fitnah also takes place by means of doubts and lusts. Many people were exposed to Fitnah because of groundless doubts, like the Jahmiyyah (a deviant Islamic sect denying some Attributes of Allah, claiming they are ascribed to people and cannot be ascribed to Allah), Mu`tazilah (a deviant Islamic sect claiming that those who commit major sins are in a state between belief and disbelief), Shi`ah (Shi’ites), Al-Murji’ah (a deviant Islamic sect claiming that Faith is restricted to belief not deeds) and other deviant sects who were misguided by doubts and deviated from the way of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah (those adhering to the Sunnah and the Muslim main body), which led to Fitnah for them and for other people, except those on whom Allah (Exalted be He) had mercy.

The way to avoid the different forms of Fitnah is adhering to Allah’s Book and the Sunnah of His Messenger (peace be upon him), according to what was narrated on the authority of `Aly that the Prophet (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) said:

“There will be trials.” He was then asked, “O Allah’s Messenger! What is the way out of them?” He replied, “The Book of Allah, in which there is the news of things before you, the reports of the matters after you, and the laws to settle your disputes.”

This means that there is no escape from all forms of Fitnah, whether lusts, doubts, fights or Bida` (innovations in religion) except with good understanding of Allah’s Book and the Sunnah of His Messenger (peace be upon him), and knowing the Manhaj (methodology) of the Salaf and those who followed them from the Imams (leaders) of Islam and the callers to guidance.

Anything people say and adhere to in times of war and peace should be judged according to Allah’s Book and the Sunnah of His Messenger (peace be upon him). In His Noble Book, Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says:

O you who believe! Obey Allâh and obey the Messenger (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم), and those of you (Muslims) who are in authority. (And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allâh and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم), if you believe in Allâh and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination. [Surah Al-Nisa’, 4:59]

This is the only way to follow; we should judge according to the Qur’an and the authentic Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) after his death.

Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) also says:

But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission. [Surah Al-Nisa’, 4:65]

Accepting the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) as a judge means referring to the Qur’an and the Sunnah. Allah (Exalted be He) says:

Do they then seek the judgement of (the days of) Ignorance? And who is better in judgement than Allâh for a people who have firm Faith. [Surah Al-Ma’idah, 5:50]

Anything other than Allah’s judgment is considered judgment of Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic time of ignorance). Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says:

And whosoever does not judge by what Allâh has revealed, such are the Kâfirûn (i.e. disbelievers of a lesser degree as they do not act on Allâh’s Laws).

And whosoever does not judge by that which Allâh has revealed, such are the Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doers – of a lesser degree).

And whosoever does not judge by what Allâh has revealed (then) such (people) are the Fâsiqûn [the rebellious i.e. disobedient (of a lesser degree) to Allâh]. [Surah Al-Ma’idah, 5:44-47]

The only way to avoid Fitnah is to refer to Allah’s Book and the Sunnah of His Messenger (peace be upon him), by referring to the scholars specialized in the Sunnah who are well-informed and knowledgeable about the Qur’an and the Sunnah and who have applied it. The whole Ummah; man and Jinn (creatures created from fire), Arabs, non-Arabs, men or women should refer to the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), and follow the way of the Salaf and those who follow them in times of war or peace, in acts of `Ibadah (worship) and transactions, in Allah’s Names and Attributes; in the matters of Resurrection, Hellfire, Jannah, and everything else. This also includes the wars launched by some people, in which they should refer to Shari`ah (Islamic law).

The same applies to preparation for war, allies and enemies in war. All this should be judged according to the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him).

This includes what took place on the eleventh of Muharram, 1411 A.H., when the ruler of Iraq invaded Kuwait. His threat to this country and the Gulf countries is also a Fitnah that should be referred to the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him).

According to scholars and people of Iman (Faith), there is no doubt that this man has committed a grave Munkar (that which is unacceptable or disapproved of by Islamic law and Muslims of sound intellect), a terrible sin and a fierce, unjustified attack. If he had been a caller to Islam and a person who refers to Shari`ah, he would not have invaded another country, whether Kuwait or any other one, unless he had warned them, his allegations against them are observed and their concordance with Shari`ah is judged. However, he invaded a country, killed people, captured the booty, and took captives without any pangs of conscience. This indicates that he does not have the least amount of required religiosity, magnanimity or modesty. Nevertheless, he claims to be a true Muslim, that he is fighting in the Cause of Allah and that he intends to protect the Two Sacred Mosques. This is really hypocrisy, deception and absolute Kufr (disbelief).

It is known that the Ba`th Party, communism and all secular parties contradict Islam and are more indulged in Kufr than the Jews and Christians, because it is lawful to eat the animals slaughtered by Jews and Christians, eat with them and marry the chaste women among them. However, it is impermissible to eat with atheists or marry their women. The same applies to idol worshippers. Any atheist who does not believe in Islam is worse than Jews and Christians. Those who belong to the Ba`th Party and secularists who reject Islam, in addition to communists, socialists and all the other atheist parties who do not believe in Allah and the Day of Judgment are worse in Kufr than the Jews and Christians. The same applies to idol worshippers, grave worshippers, tree worshippers, and stone worshippers; they are worse than the Jews and Christians. That is why Allah (Exalted be He) has distinguished them from each other, even if they are all Kafirs (disbelievers), misguided and will enter Hellfire, but they are not of the same degree of Kufr and misguidance. They will be in Hellfire if they die while in the same state.

If a person who belongs to the Ba`th party wants to claim that they are Muslims, they have to leave their party, whether Ba`th, socialism or communism, and perform Tawbah (repentance to Allah) from all that contradicts Islam, so that their sincerity is proven. If that cunning Saddam, the ruler of Iraq, wanted to perform Tawbah, he should have rejected the Ba`th party, disclaimed it, announced himself a Muslim, withdrawn from the country he invaded, corrected the injustice he had done to the people, regretted it, withdrawn his army from Kuwait, announced his Tawbah and referred to Shari`ah in his rulings, so that his sincerity would have been proven to the people.

Fighting him is one of the most important forms of Jihad (fighting in the Cause of Allah), which is fighting a barefaced enemy to take revenge, return the rights to their owners and solve the tribulation that he caused. All the Islamic countries, including the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and its allies, should fight him. It is considered a Shar`y (Islamically lawful) Jihad. If a fighter is killed in it, he is considered a martyr; if he returns safe, he will gain a great reward if he is a Muslim. The ruling on seeking the help of non-Muslims is known by scholars and there is a lot of evidence on it. The correct opinion is what was mentioned in the decree of the Council of Senior Scholars in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It is permissible to seek the help of non-Muslims in case of necessity to fight back an unjust enemy and protect the country from their evil, if the Muslim forces are not adequate to do this. In this case, it is permissible to seek the help of those who are most probably able to offer help, whether they are Jews, Christians, idol worshippers, or others. This happened to the Prophet (peace be upon him) in Makkah when he sought the help of Mut`am ibn `Udayy when he returned from Al-Ta’if and was afraid of the people of Makkah after the death of his uncle Abu Talib. He first sought the help of others, but they did not respond, and then he sought the help of Mut`am who was one of their chiefs and he protected him. He (peace be upon him) also used to pass by the polytheists at their homes in Mina to ask them to protect him so that he could convey the Message of his Lord, even though they were non-Muslims. He sought the help of `Abdullah ibn Urayqit during the Hijrah (Prophet’s migration to Madinah), although he was a Kafir, being fit for the job and unlikely to report them to the polytheists. On the day of the Battle of Badr he said, “I do not seek the help of a polytheist.” However, he did not say “Do not seek the help of polytheists”; he spoke only about himself, as he did not need them at that time, and he had a group of Muslims to help him. This was one of the reasons behind the guidance of the man, whose help was rejected, and he embraced Islam. On the day of the Conquest of Makkah, he borrowed shields from Safwan ibn Umayyah who was still a polytheist. He asked, “Are you going to take them by force, Muhammad?” He (peace be upon him) said, “No, it is just a loan.” He sought the help of the Jews in Khaybar when the Muslims were preoccupied with Jihad and had no time to think about agriculture. He agreed with them on cultivating the land of Khaybar in return for half of the crops, even though they were Jews, as he saw that it was better for the public interest. He kept them in Khaybar until the Muslims managed to take care of their money in Khaybar during the era of `Umar. Only then, did `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) ask them to leave the country. There is also a known rule in Allah’s saying:

while He has explained to you in detail what is forbidden to you, except under compulsion of necessity [Surah Al-An`am, 6:119]

If the Muslims are forced to seek the help of a less evil enemy to fight a worse enemy, there is no harm in this. It is known that atheists, Ba`thists and such people are worse than the Jews and the Christians; any atheist is worse than the People of the Book. So, according to Shar`y rules, it is permissible to seek the help of some polytheists to fight a worse evil enemy and protect the Muslims from their evil.

It is known to the scholars that the reports that are narrated from the Prophet (peace be upon him) about Fitnah and avoiding it, which is as follows:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

There will be Fitan in which the sitting person will be better than the standing one; the standing one will be better than the walking one; and the walking one will be better than the running one. Whoever looks forward to those Fitan, they will overtake him; and whoever finds a refuge or a shelter should take refuge in it.

This is the Fitnah in which Al-Haqq (the Truth) is unclear; a Mu’min (a believer) should avoid it by every possible means. This also applies to the saying of the Prophet (peace be upon him):

A time is about to come when the best property of a Muslim will be sheep, which he takes to the tops of mountains and the places of rainfall, so as to flee with his religion from Fitnah.

Related by Al-Bukhari in his Sahih (authentic) Book of Hadith.This also applies to the saying of the Prophet (peace be upon him) when he was asked:

“Who is the best among the people?” He replied, “A Mu’min who fights in the Cause of Allah.” People asked, “Who is next?” He replied, “A Mu’min who stays in one of the mountain paths worshipping Allah and saves the people from his mischief.”

This refers to the times when matters are ambiguous and the Mu’min are afraid for themselves. However, if they realize who is the oppressor and who is the oppressed, they should stand with the oppressed against the oppressors. This is according to the saying of the Prophet (peace be upon him):

“Help your brothers, whether they are oppressors or oppressed.” A man asked, “O, Messenger of Allah! How can I help them if they are oppressors?” He (peace be upon him) said, “By preventing him from oppressing (others), for that is how to help them.”

When the Fitnah took place at the time of the Sahabah (may Allah be pleased with him), some of them were misled and refused to participate in it because of the Hadiths of Fitnah, such as Sa`d ibn Abu Waqqas, Muhammad ibn Maslamah, and other Sahabah (may Allah be pleased with them). However, the well-informed Sahabah supported `Aly, as he was the one who deserved support, in the face of Khawarij (separatist group that believes committing a major sin amounts to disbelief) and the aggressors of the people of the Levant (the region covering Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine) when they knew the truth; `Aly was wronged and should be supported, for he was the Imam (ruler) that should be followed and Mu`awiyah and his supporters wronged him and accused him of killing `Uthman. Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) says in his Glorious Book:

And if two parties or groups among the believers fall to fighting, then make peace between them both. But if one of them outrages against the other, then fight you (all) against the one that outrages [Surah Al-Hujurat, 49:9]

He does not say “keep away from them”, but He says:

then fight you (all) against the one that which outrages till it complies with the Command of Allâh. Then if it complies, then make reconciliation between them justly, and be equitable. Verily! Allâh loves those who are the equitable. [Surah Al-Hujurat, 49:9]

If the oppressor is known, the oppressed should be helped according to Allah’s saying:

then fight you (all) against the one that outrages till it complies with the Command of Allâh. [Surah Al-Hujurat, 49:9]

In the era of the Sahabah, the oppressors were Mu`awiyah and his supporters, and the oppressed were `Aly and his supporters. That is why the great Sahabah supported `Aly as previously mentioned. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said a Sahih Hadith wherein he speaks about Khawarij. He (peace be upon him) said:

There would be two groups in my Ummah. A group will secede from them, and the one that is closer to Al-Haqq will kill them.

`Aly and his supporters who were nearer to Al-Haqq killed them. The Prophet (peace be upon him) also said about `Ammar:

`Ammar will be killed by the oppressing group.

He was killed by Mu`awiyah and his supporters in the Battle of Siffin.

Mu`awiyah and his supporters were oppressors, but they were at the same time practicing independent reasoning and they thought they were right in claiming revenge for `Uthman, just like Talhah, Al-Zubayr and `Aishah (may Allah be pleased with them) thought on the day of the Battle of the Camel. They would take a reward for Ijtihad (juristic effort to infer expert legal rulings), but missed the reward of right judgment. `Aly will take the reward for Ijtihad and right judgment as well. This is the Shar`y rule concerning Mujtahids (scholars qualified to exercise juristic effort to infer expert legal rulings); if a judge, a reformer or a fighter seeks truth, they will have double reward if they are right and only one if they are wrong. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

If a judge gives a verdict according to the best of his knowledge and his verdict is correct, he will receive a double reward; and if he gives a verdict according to the best of his knowledge and his verdict is wrong, he will get one reward. (Agreed upon by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Every Fitnah induced by a Muslim, a Mubtadi` (one who introduces innovations in religion) or a Kafir should be examined. A Mu’min should support the wronged one against the wrong-doer. Thus, Al-Haqq is supported; the affairs of the Muslims are settled; an oppressor is prevented from oppression; and a truth seeker knows that he should cooperate in righteousness and piety, not in sin and transgression. This is according to Allah’s saying:

Help you one another in Al-Birr and At-Taqwâ (virtue, righteousness and piety); but do not help one another in sin and transgression. [Surah Al-Ma’idah, 5:2]

Fighting an aggressor or a Kafir who attacks the Muslims out of oppression is a duty, a form of righteousness, helping the oppressed and fighting the oppressors. Thus, fighting Saddam and those like him is a form of righteousness and guidance. The Muslims should exert all possible efforts in fighting him, and seek the help of anyone who may be useful in resisting the oppressor and getting rid of his evil. It is also impermissible for the Muslims to abandon the oppressed and leave them for the oppressors to exploit them in any way; the oppressor should be resisted and the oppressed supported in every way.

All the Muslims should comprehend their religion; have deep insight in what they do and what they refrain from doing; refer to Allah’s Book and the Sunnah of His Messenger (peace be upon him) in everything; study them to seek the truth for the sake of Allah (Exalted be He) and the Hereafter, to carry out Allah’s rulings among the people; and beware of desires, as it makes people fall into Hellfire. Allah (Exalted be He) says:

and follow not your desire — for it will mislead you from the Path of Allâh. [Surah Sad, 38:26]

He (Glorified and Exalted be He) says:

But if they answer you not (i.e. do not bring the Book nor believe in your doctrine of Islâmic Monotheism), then know that they only follow their own lusts. And who is more astray than one who follows his own lusts, without guidance from Allâh? Verily Allâh guides not the people who are Zâlimûn (wrong-doers, disobedient to Allâh, and polytheists). [Surah Al-Qasas, 28:50]

Any person who has deep insight believes that if Saddam had been left to do what he likes, he would have ruined the country, and would have been helped by people from the north and the south in his falsehood. If he had been able to carry out his plans, this would have led to terrible disasters, serious corruption, and great evil. However, it is out of Allah’s Mercy and Bounty that the rulers of Saudi Arabia noticed his evil and corruption, so they sought the help of multi-national forces to fight him and defend the religion and the country, until Allah (Exalted be He) ruined his plotting and prevented him from achieving his aim.

May Allah grant us a good end, save us from his evil and the evil of others, and support our Islamic armies and those who help them against the ruler of Iraq until he stops his aggression, withdraws his army from Kuwait and knows his limits! May Allah also grant the best understanding of religion to our armies, save us from the evils of our sins, save us from the evil of all Kafirs of all nationalities, make them return to their countries while we are safe from their evil, guide them to Islam, and save them from Kufr!

May Allah guide them all, make them return to Al-Haqq and guidance, and save us from the evil of Ba`thists, Christians or others. May Allah guide them to Islam, save us from their evil, make the Kafirs among them return to their countries and leave the Muslims, get rid of the ruler of Iraq and his army, and choose for Iraq a righteous ruler who judges according to Shari`ah! May Allah also grant all the Muslims rulers who judge according to Shari`ah and lead them by the Qur’an and the Sunnah and save the Muslims from the evil of their rulers who contradict Shari`ah!

May He set right the affairs of Muslims and their leaders, guide them to His Right Path, make the best of the Muslims their leaders, save them from the evil of enemies wherever they are, ruin the plotting of the enemies, and save us from the evil of our sins. May He enable us to perform sincere Tawbah and make the hard affliction that happened in Kuwait a lesson for everyone and a reason for guidance! May Allah guide our government to all goodness, help it to obey Allah (Exalted be He) and His Messenger (peace be upon him), and prepare a strong army that suffices them and makes them dispense with all the enemies of Allah!

May Allah guide all our neighboring countries to adhere to Allah’s Book, make them all consent to Al-Haqq and guidance, enable them to obey Allah (Exalted be He) and His Messenger (peace be upon him), save them from the enemies and hypocrites among them who fight the Qur’an and the Sunnah, and call for their opposite!

May Allah ruin the plotting of His enemies and disunite them. May He guide the truth seekers to what pleases Him, set right the affairs of the Muslims everywhere, unify the opinions of Muslims everywhere on Al-Haqq and guidance, and save us from the evil of our enemies wherever they are! He is the Most Generous One. May Allah’s peace and blessings be upon His Slave and Messenger, our Prophet Muhammad, his family, Companions and those who followed them in righteousness!

[Fataawaa Ibn Baaz, 6/81-91]

Coeducation

All praise is due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger, his family and Companions. To commence:

The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’ has read the request for Fatwa submitted by Jam`iat Al-Shari`ah Wal-Dirasat Al-Islamiyyah (Faculty of Shari`ah and Islamic Studies), University of Kuwait to his Eminence, the President of the Committee No. 269 in 8/2/1404 A.H., which states:

With regard to the suffering which students of the University of Kuwait face owing to co-education, especially as some girls wear indecent clothes, some scholars are still of the opinion that co-education is permissible. Their evidence is that men and women mix when performing Tawaf for Hajj or `Umrah (lesser pilgrimage). It should be noted that Zina (adultery) is common among the students who violate Islamic rulings in the name of freedom. They go on journeys where boys and girls sit in seclusion.

The university has become a platform for the latest fashions, make-up and hairstyles. It should be mentioned that many students are unmarried.

Therefore, we ask you to issue a Fatwa and clarify what is right from what is wrong and guide us to that which is right. We hope you will give us a detailed answer for our questions which will be printed and distributed to the students. The questions are as follows: What is the ruling on mixed education substantiated with evidence and your reply to those who say that it is permissible relying on the fact that men and women mix during Tawaf? Who is responsible for the sin of the spread of free-mixing in the university? It should be noted that we reproach co-education and if we leave the university, corrupt will greatly increase. Can the need for abstracting buildings, saving expenditure in addition to the lack of teachers, equipment and labs be a pretext for the permissibility of co-education to save the expenses on facilities and teachers?

The Committee reply comes as follows:

First, mixing between males and females in education is unlawful and an abominable act because it leads to temptation and corruption and is likely to lead to prohibited matters. Its evil consequences such as temptation and corruption is hard evidence that it should be prohibited.

There a significant difference between mixing in education and mixing during Tawaf. During the lifetime of the Prophet (peace be upon him), women used to perform Tawaf behind men. They used to wear their veils without mixing and without direct contact. The same was the case when they went to the Musalla (a place for Prayer) for Salat-ul-`Eid (the Festival Prayer). After delivering the Khutbah (sermon) of Salat-ul-`Eid for men, the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to give sermons to the women. So, there was no mixing between men and women at all. Likewise, when women went to offer Salah (Prayer) in the Masjid (mosque), they used to cover themselves well with their garments and pray behind the men in rows that were far from the men’s rows. May Allah help the officials in charge of education in Muslim countries to bring co-education to an end! May Allah set their conditions right; He is the All-Hearing and Answerer of Supplication!

Second, rulers and scholars are responsible for co-education, as they give Fatwas and they should execute them. Also, they are the woman’s guardian. It is authentically reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “All of you are guardians and are responsible for your charges, The Imam (ruler) is the guardian of his charges and is responsible for them and the man is the guardian of his family and is responsible for them and the woman is the guardian of her husband’s house… ” Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.

Third, the need to reduce expenditure on facilities, equipment and teachers does not make it permissible to allow co-education. Education is obligatory if it is within the scope of capability. Some co-ordination would solve many problems. Women’s wearing according to the legal code of dress in Islam would bring many aspects of temptation to an end. Finally, whoever intends to do good and follow the Shari`ah, Allah will make things easy for him, and guide him to the Straight Path as Allah (Exalted be He) says (interpretation of the meaning):

And whosoever fears Allâh and keeps his duty to Him, He will make a way for him to get out (from every difficulty). [Surah Al-Talaq, 65:2]

And He will provide him from (sources) he never could imagine. And whosoever puts his trust in Allâh, then He will suffice him. [Surah Al-Talaq, 65:3]

To His saying (interpretation of the meaning):

and whosoever fears Allâh and keeps his duty to Him, He will make his matter easy for him. [Surah Al-Talaq, 65:4]

May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions!

[Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’, 12/163-166]

Dayyooth

Question: Does the term “dayyuth” describe any man who allows the female members of his family to wear non-Islamic clothing? Someone told us that Dayyuth does not describe a man who sees his mother, sister, or wife committing Zina (premarital sexual intercourse and/or adultery) and remains silent about this. This person interpreted the Hadith related to this meaning by saying that Dayyuth describes a person who sees the female members of his family committing Munkar (that which is unacceptable or disapproved of by Islamic law and Muslims of sound intellect) and remains silent about this by displaying the good aspects; it does not refer to a person who sees the female members of his family committing Zina. What does this term mean? What is the meaning of the Hadith?

Answer: Ahmad  related on the authority of  Ibn `Umar (may Allah be pleased with them) that Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said:

“There are three persons to whom Allah (may He be Blessed and Exalted) has forbidden Jannah (Paradise): the one addicted to Khamr (intoxicants), the impious son, and the Dayyuth who does not deny Zina committed by his female household.”

Al-Haythamy said in Majma` Al-Zawa’id that the name of one of the narrators of the Hadith was not mentioned, but the other narrators were Thiqah (trustworthy). Also, Al-Tabarany related on the authority of  `Ammar ibn Yasir (may Allah be pleased with him): The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:

Three (kinds of) persons will never be admitted into Jannah: the Dayyuth, the mannish woman, and the one addicted to Khamr. The people asked: We know those who are addicted to Khamr, but what about the Dayyuth? He replied: He who does not care who comes in to the female members of his family. They asked: Who is the mannish woman? He answered: A woman who imitates men.

Al-Haythamy said in Majma` Al-Zawa’id: The Hadith includes narrators whose status is not known, but there are no weak narrators among them. Al-Bazzar and Al-Tabarany related on the authority of Malik ibn Uhaymir (may Allah be pleased with him) who said that he heard the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) saying:

“Allah shall not accept from Al-Sukur on the Day of Resurrection any repentance or ransom. We said: O Messenger of Allah! What is Al-Sukur? He said: He who allows men to come in to their female household.”

Al-Haythamy commented that among the narrators was Abu Razin Al-Bahily whom he did not know, but the rest of the narrators were Thiqah. Accordingly, the first above-mentioned Hadith shows that the term “Dayyuth” is used to describe any person who does not deny Zina committed by any woman in his charge; whether his wife, daughter, sister, and so on, and whether it is an act of Zina or a means that leads to it, such as displaying `Awrah (private parts of the body that must be covered in public) in front of non-Mahrams (not a spouse or unmarriageable relatives), being alone with them, wearing perfume when going out, and other means which provoke Fitnah (temptation) and corruption. The other Hadith that are related to the same meaning fall under the generality of the first Hadith, even though they include the previously-mentioned defects. It is known that remaining silent about Munkar is Haram (prohibited). This is so whether this Munkar is committed on the part of one’s female household or on the part of others. However, refraining from denying Munkar that is committed by one’s charges is more prohibited and graver in sin because the man is the guardian who is responsible for his charges. This silence is indeed Munkar, whether it makes him described as Dayyuth or not, because of the Ayahs (Qur’anic verses) and Hadith indicating this. May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions!

[Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’, 17/197]