Holding the Mus-haf during salaah

Question: I carry a copy of the Qur’an while offering Salah (Prayer) behind the Imam (the one who leads congregational Prayer). It should be noted that I concentrate much and my mind does not go astray, and the moves I make in Salah are only for opening and closing the Qur’an. Is this permissible? I hope you will explain the issue!

Answer: The Ma’mum (a person being led by an Imam in Prayer) has to listen attentively to the recitation of the Imam and contemplate the Words of Allah they are hearing. They should not be distracted by anything as Allah (Exalted be He) says:

listen to it, and be silent that you may receive mercy. [Surah Al-A`raf, 7:204]

Imam Ahmad (may Allah be merciful to him) said that religious scholars agreed by consensus that this Ayah is about listening to the recitation of the Qur’an in Salah. holding a copy of the Qur’an while offering Salah behind the Imam for the sake of following the Imam causes the person to make repeated moves which distracts the people offering Salah around them. This may affect the perfection of submission and humbleness to Allah in Salah, so it is prescribed to abandon it.

May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions!

[Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’, 5/383]

Ruling on allowing children to enter masjids

Question: Is it permissible for children to enter Masjids (Mosques)? How do we respond to those who consider it not permissible?

Answer: It is recommended to bring children to the Masjid so they will become accustomed to offering Salah (prayer) in congregation, if the child has reached the age of discernment. It is authentically reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“Command your children to pray when they are seven years old and beat them for (neglecting) it when they are ten years old, and do not let (boys and girls) sleep together.”

As for the account that the Prophet (peace be upon them) said:

“Keep your children and the insane away from your Masjids”,

it is unauthentic.

However, if a child has not reached the age of discernment, it is best not to bring him to the Masjid, as he is unaware of the meaning of Salah or congregation. Also, the child may disturb those offering Salah.

May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions!

[Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’, 5/263]

Keeping masjids safe from the playing and disturbance of children

Question: Someone in our village brings his minor children who have not reached the age of seven to the Masjid (mosque). Sometimes, they raise their voices and distract those who offer Salah and cause them to lose concentration. When some of our Muslim brothers advised him not to bring them, he said: The Companions used to bring their children to the Masjid during the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and when the Messenger heard the cry of a baby, he used to not lengthen Salah. What is the ruling in this regard? Could you kindly explain?

Answer: It is obligatory to maintain Masjids and keep them safe from the playing of children and their annoyance because Masjids are built for worship. Those who bring their children with them to teach them Salah (prayer) should discipline them and train them not to play in the Masjids or play with the Mushafs (copies of the Qur’an) there.

May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family and Companions

[Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’, 5/264]

Coeducation

All praise is due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger, his family and Companions. To commence:

The Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’ has read the request for Fatwa submitted by Jam`iat Al-Shari`ah Wal-Dirasat Al-Islamiyyah (Faculty of Shari`ah and Islamic Studies), University of Kuwait to his Eminence, the President of the Committee No. 269 in 8/2/1404 A.H., which states:

With regard to the suffering which students of the University of Kuwait face owing to co-education, especially as some girls wear indecent clothes, some scholars are still of the opinion that co-education is permissible. Their evidence is that men and women mix when performing Tawaf for Hajj or `Umrah (lesser pilgrimage). It should be noted that Zina (adultery) is common among the students who violate Islamic rulings in the name of freedom. They go on journeys where boys and girls sit in seclusion.

The university has become a platform for the latest fashions, make-up and hairstyles. It should be mentioned that many students are unmarried.

Therefore, we ask you to issue a Fatwa and clarify what is right from what is wrong and guide us to that which is right. We hope you will give us a detailed answer for our questions which will be printed and distributed to the students. The questions are as follows: What is the ruling on mixed education substantiated with evidence and your reply to those who say that it is permissible relying on the fact that men and women mix during Tawaf? Who is responsible for the sin of the spread of free-mixing in the university? It should be noted that we reproach co-education and if we leave the university, corrupt will greatly increase. Can the need for abstracting buildings, saving expenditure in addition to the lack of teachers, equipment and labs be a pretext for the permissibility of co-education to save the expenses on facilities and teachers?

The Committee reply comes as follows:

First, mixing between males and females in education is unlawful and an abominable act because it leads to temptation and corruption and is likely to lead to prohibited matters. Its evil consequences such as temptation and corruption is hard evidence that it should be prohibited.

There a significant difference between mixing in education and mixing during Tawaf. During the lifetime of the Prophet (peace be upon him), women used to perform Tawaf behind men. They used to wear their veils without mixing and without direct contact. The same was the case when they went to the Musalla (a place for Prayer) for Salat-ul-`Eid (the Festival Prayer). After delivering the Khutbah (sermon) of Salat-ul-`Eid for men, the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to give sermons to the women. So, there was no mixing between men and women at all. Likewise, when women went to offer Salah (Prayer) in the Masjid (mosque), they used to cover themselves well with their garments and pray behind the men in rows that were far from the men’s rows. May Allah help the officials in charge of education in Muslim countries to bring co-education to an end! May Allah set their conditions right; He is the All-Hearing and Answerer of Supplication!

Second, rulers and scholars are responsible for co-education, as they give Fatwas and they should execute them. Also, they are the woman’s guardian. It is authentically reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “All of you are guardians and are responsible for your charges, The Imam (ruler) is the guardian of his charges and is responsible for them and the man is the guardian of his family and is responsible for them and the woman is the guardian of her husband’s house… ” Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.

Third, the need to reduce expenditure on facilities, equipment and teachers does not make it permissible to allow co-education. Education is obligatory if it is within the scope of capability. Some co-ordination would solve many problems. Women’s wearing according to the legal code of dress in Islam would bring many aspects of temptation to an end. Finally, whoever intends to do good and follow the Shari`ah, Allah will make things easy for him, and guide him to the Straight Path as Allah (Exalted be He) says (interpretation of the meaning):

And whosoever fears Allâh and keeps his duty to Him, He will make a way for him to get out (from every difficulty). [Surah Al-Talaq, 65:2]

And He will provide him from (sources) he never could imagine. And whosoever puts his trust in Allâh, then He will suffice him. [Surah Al-Talaq, 65:3]

To His saying (interpretation of the meaning):

and whosoever fears Allâh and keeps his duty to Him, He will make his matter easy for him. [Surah Al-Talaq, 65:4]

May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family, and Companions!

[Permanent Committee for Scholarly Research and Ifta’, 12/163-166]

What is the ruling on drawing in Islaam?

Question: What is the ruling on drawing in Islam?

Answer: Praise be to Allaah.

Drawing is of two types:

One is drawing pictures of animate beings. It says in the Sunnah that this is forbidden. It is not permitted to draw anything that depicts animate beings, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, according to the saheeh hadeeth: “Every image maker will be in the Fire.” And he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The most severely punished of people on the Day of Resurrection will be the image-makers, those who tried to imitate the creation of Allaah.” And he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The makers of these images will be punished on the Day of Resurrection, and they will be told, ‘Give life to that which you have created.’”

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) cursed those who consume riba (interest, usury) and those who pay it, and he cursed the image-makers. This indicates that making images is forbidden. The scholars interpreted that as referring to images of animate beings such as animals, people and birds.

With regard to drawing inanimate objects – which is the second type of drawing – there is no sin in that, such as drawing mountains, trees, planes, cars and the like. There is nothing wrong with that, according to the scholars.

With regard to forbidden kinds of pictures, an exception is made in cases of necessity, such as drawing pictures of criminals so that they will be known and caught, or pictures for identity cards which are essential and which cannot be obtained otherwise, and other cases of necessity.  If the ruler  decides that producing images of criminals is necessary, because of the seriousness of their crimes and  to protect the Muslims from their evil when they are known, or for other reasons, there is nothing wrong with that. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“…He has explained to you in detail what is forbidden to you, except under compulsion of necessity …”

[al-An’aam 6:119]

[Fataawa Noor ‘ala al-Darb by Shaykh Ibn Baaz, p. 302]

The age at which a child is obligated to fast

Question: When does it become obligatory for the child to fast, and what is the age limit?

Answer: A child is ordered to pray when he reaches the age of seven, and beat them to do so at the age of ten, and it becomes obligatory upon him when he reaches puberty. And puberty is determined by:

1) Excretion of sperm due to (sexual) arousing;
2) Appearance of pubic hair around the private parts;
3) Having wet dreams, if sperm is excreted;
4) Reaching the age of fifteen years.

And similar is the case for a female, in addition to her coming on her menses.
The source for the aforementioned is what Imaam Ahmad and Abu Daawood have related on the authority of the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam):

«Order your children to pray at seven and beat them to pray at ten, and separate them from each other in bed».

Also, ‘Aa.ishah (radhi-yallaahu ‘anhaa) related on the authority of the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam):

«The pen (of obligation) has been lifted for three (individuals): the sleeper until he awakens, the young child until he reaches puberty, and the mentally ill until he comprehends».

And with Allaah lies all success and may Allaah send prayers and salutations upon our Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) and his family and his companions.

The Permanent Committee for Academic Research and Fataawa, comprising:
Head: Shaykh ‘Abdul-‘Azeez Ibn ‘Abdullaah Ibn Baaz;
Deputy Head: Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaaq ‘Afeefee;
Member: Shaykh ‘Abdullaah Ibn Ghudayyaan;
Member: Shaykh ‘Abdullaah Ibn Qu’ood

[Fataawa Ramadhaan – Volume 1, Page 233, Fatwa No.177; Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa.imah lil-Buhooth al-‘Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa. – Fatwa No. 1787]

Published: 6 December 2000

The congregational takbeer for the `Eed prayer

Question: What is the ruling regarding the congregational takbeer for the `Eed prayer.

Answer: It has been legislated for a person to make takbeer from his home to the musallaa (area designated for the `Eed prayer), and whilst at the musallaa he should audibly (continue to) do so, each person unto himself, such that the place vibrates with the (sound of the) takbeer. As for them mutually agreeing to start and finish together (in congregation), then there is nothing (evidence) to indicate the permissibility of the congregational takbeer, and it has not been legislated.

Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaaq ‘Afeefee

[Fataawa wa Rasaa.il Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaaq ‘Afeefee – Volume 1, Page 187-188, Fatwa No.14]

Published: 17 January 2005

The fast of one who does not pray

Question: We need to know the ruling about the fast of one who does not pray (obligatory prayers)?

Answer: One who does not pray, (then) his fast is not correct and it is not acceptable from him. This is because the one who does not pray is a kaafir and apostate (murtad), as Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala) says:

{But if they repent, offer prayers perfectly and give zakaah, then they are your brethren in religion} [Soorah at-Towbah, Aayah 11].

And also the statement of the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam):

«The agreement which is between us and them is the salaah, so he who leaves it has disbelieved».

…and also His (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) saying:

«Between the man and shirk and kufr is leaving the salaah».

And certainly this is the statement of the general Companions, if it is not a concensus amongst them. ‘Abdullaah Ibn Shaqeeq (rahimahullaah) who was amongst the prominent Taabi’oon said: «The Companions of the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) did not see the leaving off of any actions to be kufr except the prayer». And based upon this, if a person was to fast whilst he did not pray, then his fast is rejected and unacceptable and there is no benefit for him in front of Allaah on the Day of Judgement. And we say to him: Pray then fast, as for fasting and not praying then your fast is rejected because (any) act of worship is not acceptable from a kaafir.

[Shakyh Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen, Fataawa Ramadhaan – Volume 2, Page 751, Fatwa No. 763; Fiqh al-Ibaadaat libni ‘Uthaymeen – Page 178-179]

Published: 31 December 1999

Does one who does not fast become a disbeliever (kaafir)?

Question: Is the one who does not fast, even though he is not ill or anything, become a kaafir, despite performing his (obligatory) prayers?

Answer: One who does not fast because he rejects it’s obligation then he is a kaafir by concensus. As for one who does not fast because he is lazy and negligent then he does not become a kaafir, however he is in great danger due to his leaving off a pillar from the pillars of Islaam upon which their obligation has been agreed.

And with Allaah lies all the success, and may Allaah send prayers and salutations upon our Prophet Muhammad (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) and his family and his companions.

The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Verdicts, comprising –
Head: Shaykh ‘Abdul ‘Azeez ibn Abdullaah ibn Baaz;
Deputy Head: Shaykh ‘Abdur-Razzaaq ‘Afeefee;
Member: Shaykh ‘Abdullaah Ibn Qu’ood
Fataawa Ramadhaan – Volume 2, Page 748, Fatwa No.759;
Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa.imah lil-Buhooth al-‘Ilmiyyah wal-Iftaa. – Fatwa No.6060

Published: 30 December 1999

The menstruating and post-partum bleeding woman eating during the day

Question: Is the menstruating and post-partum bleeding woman allowed to eat and drink during the day in Ramadhaan?

Answer: Yes, she can eat and drink during the day in Ramadhaan, however, it is better if this is done out of sight (of others), particularly since if they have a child at home then this would cause problems for them (in having to explain their condition)

[Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, Fataawa Muhimmah li-Nisaa. al-Ummah – Page 66]

Published: 30 October 2003